What is the ChemokineDB?

The ChemokineDB is a comprehensive resource of chemokines and chemokine receptors that provides researchers with detailed information including taxonomy, nomenclature, structure, physiological function, tissue information, and phenotype. The data presented here is collected from previously conducted experiments and analysis from public databases: IUPHAR/BPS, NCBI Gene, and UniProt. We also link to a number of databases extending the reach of the application and making it easier for the researcher to retrieve and review information.

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Collected Information:

Aggregated function data: physiological functions, function assays, expression, tissue, diseases, phenotypes, Gene ontology, GeneRifs
Receptor-Ligand interaction | Gene information | Protein information

What are chemokines?

Chemokines are a small family of cell-secreted proteins involved in directly signaling nearby cells through chemotaxis. Four main families exist (CC, CXC, CX3C and XC). Chemokines interact with neighboring cells through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are named based on the type of chemokines with which it interacts. The GPCR in turn communicates with the rest of the cell by way of signal transduction mediated by a G-protein. Understanding the inter-relationships between chemokines, species and chemokine receptors is critical in understanding the role in human health and disease, and in drug development. More information about chemokines and chemokine receptors can be found here.


Why did we develop ChemokineDB?

A comprehensive review of published literature is insufficient to obtain the latest chemokine-related information as contributions to the field occur very frequently. As an alternative, researchers consult several different databases like UniProt, NCBI Gene or the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY IUPHAR/BPS to collect the most recent gene, protein and receptor-ligand information. To simplify the access to the latest information in the chemokine and chemokine receptor field, we have developed ChemokineDB.

Our goals are to:

  • Collect and present the latest chemokine/receptor related data in one resource
  • Merge functional information from different databases to provide a comprehensive resource for chemokine and receptor functions

How many entries are in ChemokineDB?

Currently, our database contains:

  • 93 chemokines (43 Human, 28 Mouse, 15 Rat, 7 Virus)
  • 62 chemokine Receptors (23 Human, 23 Mouse, 16 Rat)

Who develops ChemokineDB?

The ChemokineDB is joint effort between the Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch (BCBB) and the Molecular Signaling Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD.


Where does the data originate?

ChemokineDB obtains data from the IUPHAR/BPS, NCBI Gene, and UniProt databases. Citations for these databases are listed below:

  • Southan C, Sharman JL, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Alexander SPH, Buneman OP, Davenport AP, McGrath JC, Peters JA, Spedding M, Catterall WA, Fabbro D, Davies JA; NC-IUPHAR. (2016) The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands. Nucl. Acids Res. 44 (Database Issue): D1054-68.

  • Brown GR, Hem V, Katz KS, Ovetsky M, Wallin C, Ermolaeva O, Tolstoy I, Tatusova T, Pruitt KD, Maglott DR, Murphy TD. (2015) Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI Nucleic Acids Res. 43(Database issue):D36-42.

  • The UniProt Consortium (2017) UniProt: the universal protein knowledgebase. Nucleic Acids Res. 45(D1):D158-D169.


Questions or comments?

If you would like more information about ChemokineDB or if you have questions or comments, please contact us


Related NIAID Staff Publications

Cytokine-Mediated Systemic Adverse Drug Reactions in a Drug-Drug Interaction Study of Dolutegravir With Once-Weekly Isoniazid and Rifapentine. 

(2018) Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Repetitive intradermal bleomycin injections evoke T-helper cell 2 cytokine-driven pulmonary fibrosis. 

(2017) American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology

Chemokines encoded by herpesviruses. 

(2017) Journal of leukocyte biology

Haploidentical Related Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Dedicator-of-Cytokinesis 8 Deficiency Using Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide. 

(2017) Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

Regulation of Chemokine Signal Integration by Activator of G-Protein Signaling 4 (AGS4). 

(2017) The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Viral Chemokine Receptors. 

(2015) Front Immunol

Type 2 cytokines: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. 

(2015) Nature reviews. Immunology

Chemokine receptor Cxcr4 contributes to kidney fibrosis via multiple effectors. 

(2015) American journal of physiology. Renal physiology

Anticytokine autoantibody-associated immunodeficiency. 

(2014) Annual review of immunology

Chemokine receptors in psoriasis. 

(2013) Expert opinion on therapeutic targets

Efficient cytokine-induced IL-13 production by mast cells requires both IL-33 and IL-3. 

(2013) The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology

Regulation of atherogenesis by chemokines and chemokine receptors. 

(2012) Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis

Cytokine mediated tissue fibrosis. 

(2012) Biochimica et biophysica acta

Antimicrobial chemokines. 

(2012) Frontiers in immunology

Profibrogenic chemokines and viral evolution predict rapid progression of hepatitis C to cirrhosis. 

(2012) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Regulation of atherogenesis by chemokine receptor CCR6. 

(2012) Trends in cardiovascular medicine

Identification of the platelet-derived chemokine CXCL4/PF-4 as a broad-spectrum HIV-1 inhibitor. 

(2012) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Immunodeficiency secondary to anticytokine autoantibodies. 

(2010) Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology

Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency. 

(2010) Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology

Interleukin-27, an anti-HIV-1 cytokine, inhibits replication of hepatitis C virus. 

(2010) Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research

Cytokine network in inflammatory bowel disease. 

(2003) Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy

Chemokines and their receptors in infectious disease. 

(2001) Springer Semin Immunopathol

Chemokine receptor knockout mice. 

(2000) Methods Mol Biol

Chemokine receptor cloning. 

(2000) Methods Mol Biol

Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV. 

(1998) Braz J Med Biol Res

STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3alpha. 

(1997) Biochem Biophys Res Commun

Identification of a mouse eosinophil receptor for the CC chemokine eotaxin. 

(1996) Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Kinetics of cytokine expression during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. 

(1996) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Cytokine therapy of HIV infection. 

(1996) Advances in experimental medicine and biology

Human Mig chemokine: biochemical and functional characterization. 

(1995) The Journal of experimental medicine

IL-10 synergizes with multiple cytokines in enhancing HIV production in cells of monocytic lineage. 

(1995) Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association

Blood, sweat, and chemotactic cytokines. 

(1995) Journal of leukocyte biology

IL-12 inhibits Th2 cytokine responses induced by eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. 

(1994) Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Chemokine receptors and molecular mimicry. 

(1994) Immunology today

NO as an effector molecule of parasite killing: modulation of its synthesis by cytokines. 

(1994) Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Pharmacology, toxicology and endocrinology

Molecular piracy of chemokine receptors by herpesviruses. 

(1994) Infectious agents and disease

Cytokines and modulation of diseases of immediate hypersensitivity. 

(1993) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Cytokines and their role as growth factors and in regulation of immune responses. 

(1993) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Cytokine modulation of HIV expression. 

(1993) Seminars in immunology

The role of monocyte/macrophages and cytokines in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. 

(1992) Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology

Antigen specific suppressor T cells respond to cytokines released by T cells. 

(1992) Advances in experimental medicine and biology

Cytokine regulation of HIV expression. 

(1990) Lymphokine research